Estonia

 

It was not until the late 19th century that Estonia developed a Jewish community of any size; indeed, before 1865, permanent settlement was banned by the Russian Tsars. Both the Nazi and Soviet eras saw the near-obliteration of this community. In spite of this, Jews played a crucial role in Estonia’s two periods of democratic independence, from 1919 until the 1930s, and since 1991.

 

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